Tools, demos, resources


Our research uses the XLE platform, a complete parsing implementation of the LFG syntactic formalism by PARC.  It includes various features integrated since the introduction of LFG theory by Kaplan and Bresnan (1982), such as functional uncertainty, functional precedence, generalization for coordination, multiple projections, and restriction. It has a very rich c-structure rule notation, as well as various kinds of abbreviatory devices (including parameterized templates, macros, and complex categories). The core of the project is an efficient unification-based parser based on “contexted unification” (Maxwell and Kaplan 1991) and a unification-based generator.

XLE includes a parser, a generator and a general purpose rewriting system. The XLE documentation is freely available on-line. The XLE is available under license for research and commercial purposes; contact Jessica Zipf for details.

Xerox LFG Grammar Writer’s Workbench

Until 1995, we used the Xerox LFG Grammar Writer’s Workbench, which can be considered a precursor to XLE.


XLE-Web is a web interface to XLE developed by Paul Meurer at Unifob AKSIS in cooperation with LaMoRe at the University of Bergen.

LFG Parsebanker

The LFG Parsebanker is a parsebanking environment with an interface to XLE (similar to XLE-Web) but also including tools for storing and searching analyses in a treebank. It has also been developed by Paul Meurer at Unifob AKSIS in cooperation with LaMoRe at the University of Bergen.

Probabilistic LFG parser at DCU

On-line demo of various parsers as c-structure engines with the automatic f-structure annotation algorithm in the pipleline architecture to generate DCU-style f-structures and triples.


The XLFG5 parser is an online service allowing online editing of grammars and parsing with user defined grammars.


XLE Plugin for the Eclipse platform. Allows for grammar editing and testing from within the Eclipse platform. Direct interface to XLE for parsing.


Parallel treebank currently involving ten languages from six language families. Structures produced automatically and manually disambiguated using ParGram grammars. ParGramBank can be accessed and downloaded for free via the INESS tree banking infrastructure

PARC 700 Dependency Bank

Section 23 of the UPenn Wall Street Journal treebank, parsed with the English ParGram grammar, and given gold-standard annotations of grammatical dependency relations by manual correction and extension.